**How to:**

- annualize a monthly P/P series with a formula?
- change the color of a series when it’s below / above 0 (or any other value)?
- create an if condition/statement?
- create a continuous growth rate?
- combine an if condition/statement with the logical operators and/or?
- disaggregate a series?
- make an index out of P/P series?
- replace null values for 0 in a time series?

## Annualize a monthly P/P series with a formula?

Use the following expression:

pow((1+(series/100)), YearLength())-1

The expression '1+ (series / 100)' will be raised to the power of 'yearlength()'. After which 1 will be subtracted from the result.

## Change the color of a series when it’s below / above 0 (or any other value)?

- Create two series, one containing only the values above 0 and another containing the values below 0 and then graph each series in a different color. Do the following:

a) In the series list, type the expressions:if(series >0, series, Null()) if(series <0, series, Null())

b) In the chart, click on a graph and open the

*Presentation properties*tab. Select 'Custom' from the graph style drop-down menu in the appearance group. Select the color of your choice. - Flag the values below 0 as forecast values, and change the color in which forecast values are graphed, by doing the following:

a) In the series list, type the expression:if(series > 0, series, flagforecast(series))

b) In the chart, click on the graph of the series and open the presentation properties tab. Select 'custom' from the graph style drop-down menu in the appearance group. Click 'forecast.' Select the color of your choice.

## Create an if condition/statement?

Formula language can be used in both the series list and the formula analysis. The if-statement is a formula requiring three parameters:

if(condition, value1, value2)

which can be expanded on as:

*if(condition, if_TRUE_return_this , if_FALSE_return_this)*

For example:

if(sek > 8, sek, 0)

Which returns a series with values of 0 on days when the series is below 8 and values equaling the series when the currency pair is above 8.

## Create a continuous growth rate?

To create constantly growing line use formula for compound interest:

AggregateProduct(1+VALUE/100)*100

for example, 5% continuous growth rate would be:

AggregateProduct(1+0.05/100)*100

## Combine an if condition/statement with the logical operators and/or?

To include 'and' in the function use the ' & ' sign as such:

if(condition1 & condition2, value1, value2)

which can be expanded on as:

*if(condition1 and condition2, if_TRUE_return_this , if_FALSE_return_this)*

For example:

if(sek>7 & sek<8, sek, 0)

which returns the values of the series on days when the series is between 7 __and__ 8. For all other observations, the value of the series will be 0.

To include 'or' in the function use the ' | ' sign as such:

if(condition1|condition2, value1, value2)

which can be expanded on as:

*if(condition1 OR condition2, , if_TRUE_return_this , if_FALSE_return_this)*

For example:

if(sek>7 | sek<9, sek, 0)

which returns the values of the series on days when the series is above 7 __or__ below 9. For all other observations, the value of the series will be 0.

## Make an index out of P/P series?

To create an index from a return series, use formula for compound interest:

AggregateProduct(1+(series)/100)*100

The ' *100 ' creates here starting base value.

Note that for different series you might need to transform this calculation.

## Disaggregate a series?

Series which are aggregated annually can be 'disaggregated' by using an* If()* statement in the formula language.

Example:

If(Counter()=StartOfYear(), cngpfi0091, Momentum(cngpfi0091, 1))

The logic of this formula is: keep the first value of each year as given, but the subsequent values in that year are calculated by subtracting the previous value from the current value.

## Replace null values for 0 in a time series?

You can use the function:

Null0(series)